Considerations For Your Fall Tillage Strategy
Pros and ConsBefore diving into the details and attributes of your fields, take a step back and evaluate the overarching pros and cons of tillage as a practice. Primary or fall tillage is done right after harvest to break up the hardpan and incorporate residue into the soil. This makes a nice, black soil surface that leads to a suitable seedbed come planting. This also helps the soil warm up and dry out more quickly in the spring, allowing for earlier planting, which can lead to higher yields. The main drawbacks of tillage are its contributions to soil erosion and its effects on soil structure.
Soil TypeThe amount and kind of tillage you use will be largely dependent on soil type. For example, soils that are high in organic matter and clay content trap more moisture, which makes it difficult to use a no-till system, especially on flat, lakebed soils with poor internal drainage. Getting fields to dry out in the spring for timely planting can be very difficult in these situations without doing some sort of fall tillage to break up the hardpan. On the other hand, older, weathered soils in areas with warmer, open winters, such as the southern U.S. or southeastern Corn Belt, are much better suited for more minimal tillage options.
Annual Precipitation LevelsThe more tillage that’s done, the more moisture is evaporated from the soil. So, if you’re west of the Missouri River, where moisture is at a premium, doing the least amount of tillage possible is usually advantageous to conserve moisture.
Crops Harvested and Crops to Be PlantedCompared to soybeans, corn leaves three to five times the amount of residue in the field after harvest. In continuous corn systems, getting that amount of residue incorporated into the soil to make way for a decent seedbed can be an undertaking. Oftentimes, this is when growers will turn to a moldboard plow method. However, since soybeans leave much less residue, they require less tillage postharvest.
Another reason you may want to get more aggressive with tillage is if you plan to plant a specialty crop like sugar beets in the spring. Sugar beets are planted shallower than corn so it’s important to incorporate residue well to maintain a fitting seedbed at 1-inch deep.
Erosion ManagementSince erosion is a primary concern with tillage, consider the characteristics of your fields and their susceptibility to erosion. For example, in flat fields, wind erosion is the biggest concern, while for hilly fields, water or gully erosion is more of a threat.
Cover crops are a great way to prevent erosion, but they’re not the answer for every situation. For instance, it can be difficult in northern U.S. climates to get a cover crop planted after harvest before the ground freezes. But if you’re lifting sugar beets early for pre-pile harvest, chopping corn silage in late summer or harvesting small grains, you may have enough time to seed a good cover crop. In these situations, or in climates naturally well-suited for cover crops, planting something like winter rye can help prevent wind erosion.
Soil HealthWhile tillage has great benefits for spring field preparation, it’s important to be mindful that it does consume carbon. Tillage stimulates the microbes to decompose residue more quickly, which is a good thing for creating a nice seedbed, but it also burns up organic matter, which releases CO2.
Impacts to soil structure are another reason to be conservative with tillage. When a growing plant’s roots penetrate through the soil, they make channels and leave microscopic pores and holes. After the crop is harvested and the roots start to decompose, those channels, pores and holes are left hollow, leaving pathways for water to flow through and drain the soil. Tillage, however, breaks through and collapses those natural structures.
- Moldboard Plow: This is the most aggressive tillage method, inverting the soil 8-12 inches deep. It leaves less than 15% of the soil surface protected by crop residue. While it still has its uses, it’s not nearly as common as it once was.
- Disc Ripping: This method is probably the most common type of fall tillage today. It tills to a depth of 8-12 inches but doesn’t invert the soil like a moldboard plow does. It leaves 30-40% of residue on the surface and leaves the surface rough, which is good for erosion prevention.
- Chisel Plow: This method tills to a depth of about 6-8 inches and should leave about 40-45% residue on the surface.
- Strip Tillage: Like it sounds, strip tillage involves chisel plowing 7–10-inch strips to prepare suitable seedbeds, leaving the ground in between untouched.
- Vertical Tillage: Over the past decade, this method has been gaining popularity. Vertical tillage chops up crop residue and lightly works the top 1-4 inches of soil. This often works well in the fall when you can do a pass right after the combine and chop up residue to expose more surface area, helping bacteria decompose it more efficiently.
- No-Till: As the name suggests, no-till means no tillage is done. This is the most effective method in preventing soil erosion and maintaining soil structure but doesn’t allow the ground to dry or warm up as fast in the spring. It can also be difficult to find success with no-till in flat, black, heavy, compacted soils due to lack of drainage.
All photos are either the property of WinField United or used with permission.
© 2021 WinField United. Important: Before use always read and follow label instructions. Crop performance is dependent on several factors many of which are beyond the control of WinField United, including without limitation, soil type, pest pressures, agronomic practices and weather conditions. Growers are encouraged to consider data from multiple locations, over multiple years and to be mindful of how such agronomic conditions could impact results. WinField is a trademark of WinField United. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
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